I like code-validation tools, because I hate defects in my software and I know that there are lots of kinds of defects that are difficult for an unaided human brain to notice.
On my projects, I throw every code validater I can find at my code. Standbys are cppcheck for C code, pylint for Python, and go lint for Go code. I run these frequently – usually they’re either part of the “make check” I use to run regression tests, or part of the hook script run when I push changes to the public repository.
A few days ago I found another validator that I now really like: shellcheck Yes, it’s a lint/validator for shell scripts – and in retrospect shell, as spiky and irregular and suffused with multilevel quoting as it is, has needed something like this for a long time.
I haven’t done a lot of shell scripting in the last couple of decades. It’s not a good language for programming at larger orders of magnitude than 10 lines or so – too many tool dependencies, too difficult to track what’s going on. These problems are why Perl and later scripting language became important; if shell had scaled up better the space they occupy would have remained shell code as far as the eye can see.
But sometimes you write a small script, and then it starts to grow, and you can end up in an awkward size range where it isn’t quite unmanageable enough to drive you to port it to (say) Python yet. I have some cases like this in the reposurgeon suite.
For this sort of thing a shell validater/linter can be a real boon, enabling you to have much more confidence that you’ll catch silly errors when you modify the script, and actually increasing the upper limit of source-line count at which shell remains a viable programming language.
So it is an excellent thing that shellcheck is a solid and carefully-thought-out piece of work. It does catch lot of nits and potential errors, hardening your script against cases you probably haven’t tested yet. For example. it’s especially good at flagging constructs that will break if a shell variable like $1 gets set to a value with embedded whitspace.
It has other features you want in a code validator, too. You can do line-by-line suppression of specific spellcheck warnings with magic comments, telling the tool “Yes, I really meant to do that” so it will shut up. This means when you get new warnings they are really obvious.
Also, it’s fast. Fast enough that you can run it on all your shellscripts up front of all your regular regression tests and probably barely ever notice the time cost.
It’s standard practice for me to have a “make check” that runs code validators and then the regression tests. I’m going back and adding shellcheck validation to those check productions on all my projects that ship shell scripts. I recommend this as a good habit to everybody.